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He summarized his findings in a book called Why They Do It. Worse, the media tends to celebrate entrepreneurs who exploit loopholes and applauds them as being inventive. But sometimes courts interpret these kinds of shenanigans as simply being unlawful.

Of course, engineers get involved in their share of ethical dilemmas. Evidence is that. Perhaps the most notorious example might be that of s-era Ford Pintos bursting into flames when rear ended.

Dennis Gioia, now a professor at Penn State, was a vehicle recall coordinator at Ford when the Pinto problem emerged. He says all his available patterns and experiences at the time suggested that the Pinto case was not a red flag.

Apparently, the engineers involved had similar reactions. Among other things, frequencies of occurrence were low and comparable to those of kindred models. He now teaches the Pinto case to MBA students as a cautionary tale about ethical considerations.

Engineered elasticity Application specific designs Integrated attachments, One piece solutions Exotic materials Yes, your microwave could be spying on you Recently, the news media was filled with the story of Kellyanne Conway, a senior counselor to President Donald Trump, claiming that microwave [ovens] at Trump Tower were turned into cameras and used to spy on Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump. Like many, at first I laughed at the suggestion.

Regardless of the politics here, the idea of an appliance, like a microwave oven or coffee maker, listening to you is not that farfetched when you consider the potential reach of the IoT. Appliances that are voice enabled are listening to you.

Are they recording you? Yes, some are. Conway is not an engineer so her explanation of an eavesdropping microwave was incomplete and her motive is not to educate anyone on the science of such appliances. But an internet-connected microwave is not impossible. Washing machines connect to the internet to gather data on water usage and frequency as well as how the appliance performs. Toaster-appliance manufacturers seek to internet-enable their products to see how often they are used and gather other data engineers will use to improve the design.

Same with internet-enabled home thermostats and even garage door openers. Your front door can be internet-enabled and opened by your smart phone. A major purpose of these internet-enabled appliances is to gather data on how you interact with these appliances, you know, to find a way to sell you more stuff. The other purpose is to help build artificially intelligent systems.

GE has an AI program. Google has one too. AI is the next phase of product development. So these devices may not store your words for posterity, but they are using them to learn how we speak, how we phrase things, and eventually how we think.

Is this spying? Does it matter to you? Reducing energy usage has long been a focus for building facility and operations managers. Not only are costs and meeting codes a concern, but so is measuring up to the social expectations of being a good corporate citizen. Many energy-saving technologies come with large monetary outlays and often require longer term planning. But there are also a host of solutions that can quickly, easily and inexpensively deliver significant savings.

Now add all those areas that are unoccupied after hours—the energy costs can really add up. If budgeting is a challenge, start small by installing some occupancy sensors in the least occupied spaces and then slowly expand coverage. The additions will ultimately pay for themselves many times over. If more light is needed, it can be turned up. Not only do dimmers save money by reducing power sent to bulbs, but they can also extend bulb life. Incandescent and halogen When used with LED bulbs, the savings can be greater still.

While we usually enjoy having natural sunlight coming through our windows, the. It is possible to easily manage natural light for energy savings with automatic motorized shades, which can be programmed to raise and lower to keep lighting and temperature at optimum levels. So, even if equipment is in use hours per day, the power strips draw energy 24 hours per day. When you consider that many of the devices that are plugged into the power strips are left on unnecessarily, you realize how much energy is wasted.

OS power strips have a motion sensor that senses when a room or area is no longer in use and automatically shuts off power to individual outlets.

DW Legrand North America legrand. Connect and discuss this and other engineering design issues with thousands of professionals online. I need a plastic molder with custom expertise and a large catalog. And they need to be fast and cost-effective.

For more than 65 years, Caplugs has been the leading technical expert in product protection, masking and molded components. Our molding capabilities:. How 3D CAD promotes a functioning digital thread The work toward a common digital thread is moving forward as industry addresses the challenges of developing end-to-end, readily accessible information on systems. Here are six common factors that can cause bearings to fail, and what you can do to prevent them. Sealing basics for fluid power rookies Sealing alone is the most important contributor to the impressive might of fluid power systems and components.

Design equipment faster, smarter, and under budget with TiPS from leading suppliers. As the world leader in self-actuated temperature control solutions, we pride ourselves on the high-quality manufacturing process, problem-solving approach and innovative engineering techniques used to produce self-actuated valves and custom products where no effective solution currently exists.

Senior Editor Lisa Eitel leitel wtwhmedia. David Miyares dmiyares wtwhmedia. Marketing Coordinator Lexi Korsok lkorsok wtwhmedia.

Identify Material 2. Request Sample 3. Send DXF Drawing 4. Electric cylinders are clean-in-place compatible The easier it is to clean a machine in food and beverage applications, the better. The ERD hygienic all-stainless-steel electric cylinders are designed to IP69k rating specifications for clean-in-place, hightemperature, high-pressure caustic wash downs.

They are also available with a 3A- and USDA-approved option that meets requirements for over-food production in meat livestock , poultry and dairy processing.

They are designed with roller screw and ball screw options. Forces range up to lbf The smooth-body hygienic design eliminates the need for actuator guarding fixtures, which simplifies machine design and lowers costs. Motor mounting can be in-line with the actuator or in a reverse-parallel configuration that reduces over-all length and allows for rear pivot mounting. DW Tolomatic tolomatic. An engineer was trapped by the machinery while examining a conveyor belt and suffered major injury and ongoing nerve damage.

An investigation revealed that this dangerous accident could have been prevented if a guard was in place on the machine. Across the globe, there are a variety of different regulations for food processing plants. In particular, North America and Europe have strict regulations for safety in these potentially dangerous environments. This also applies to the safety of employees in the processing plants and employers who fail to make adequate safety considerations can face large fines.

Not only can these authorities enforce these in the case of accidents, they can also be enforced during regular inspections. In food processing plants, there are many dangerous machines for which plant managers should follow safety regulations, or the plants may face closure or high fines.

This is clearly a dangerous environment for employees to work in, however as these machines are essential for use, the key concept is the management of risk. In the s, the increase in heavy machinery such as the creation of the steel press led to increased safety guards. Since then, many safety conscious companies undertake a risk analysis in the initial stages of machine development.

In the case of decanters, it is not possible to remove the risk, but it is possible to mitigate the risk to an acceptable level by putting safety guards such as enclosures or emergency stops into place. As companies become more knowledgeable about regulations and regulations become more stringent, the need for retrofitting old equipment with additional safety measures may arise.

Although it may seem instinctive, where there is a dangerous moving machine, the safest answer is not always to shut it away behind an enclosure or barrier. In the food processing industry, companies should consult functional safety experts who have experience in the sector.

The experts will for example suggest equipment such as light grid, which perform an emergency stop on a machine when the light grid is broken by an object. These devices are more appropriate for the food processing sector than using physical guards or barriers as they allow easier access for maintenance and washdown, essential for hygiene in food processing plants. From the safety of single pieces of equipment to line safety and then plant safety, plant managers need to be aware of what they can do to mitigate risks.

Plant managers not only have a responsibility to put in place an accurate safety strategy to protect their employees, but they also need to protect their businesses from costly infringements of worldwide safety regulations, as proven in the many cases gone by.

DW ABB abb. We have 60 years of developing and delivering productivity solutions. Our product offerings include built-to-need components, price alternative components, electric actuators, specialty workholding clamps, and motion control robots.

From single actuator solutions to multi-unit systems, PHD and Yamaha Robotics can provide complete solutions for practically any application requirement. To order a catalog, visit. Patent Pending. High speed data transmission in harsh environments The Max M12 product line includes board level connectors that mate to a PCB board with straight or right angle solder pins.

The connectors transmit data in environments where there is high vibration, moisture, salt, dirt and debris. Applications include camera and communication systems on construction, mining and agricultural equipment. It can also be used in rail and mass transit communication systems and for ruggedized factory automation.

The field installable and repairable Max M12 offers discrete connections that seal in harsh environments without requiring overmolds. They are backward compatible and can be mated with any standard M12 connector with the same indexing.

All versions of this connector are IP67 or above, making them dust- and waterproof, resistant to high-pressure wash downs and water immersion. They are designed to endure a salt spray test for up to hours.

This enhanced Max M12 PCB header mates to an in-line that can withstand connector-to-cable retention forces of N and contact retention forces to N. The metal version is required for shielding. Both the 4- and 5-pin configurations are available with A, B, D and P polarity codes. Additional pin counts and codes are available upon request. All components and systems are conceived and designed in-house. Our industry experts and product specialists develop innovative products and efficient solutions for high-quality, cost-effective production with most likely, enhanced machine performance.

Throughout the globe, our production facilities share one common goal; quality. We take great pride in both our products and solutions. Direct drive offers more tractive force The MCR-T radial piston motor, for compact tracked loaders and other tracked vehicles, comes in frame size For improved efficiency, especially over long distances, the MCR-T units also allow high travel speeds at low diesel engine rotational speeds.

The compact dimensions mean that the motor completely fits in the track width of compact loaders. The MCR-T can withstand higher radial forces with its improved load distribution. The optimal position of the drive shaft allows the use of a simpler sprocket in comparison to conventional radial piston motors. An integrated flushing valve supports the cooling of the oil when used in closed hydraulic circuits, which therefore also lengthens the service life.

MCR-T radial piston motors are for continuous high rotational speeds so that compact tracked loaders can also cover longer distances. With the control valve integrated in the motor, the operator can gently and smoothly shift between travel speeds with the soft shift mode operating in both directions. The motor then runs with reduced displacement, reducing oil flow in the circuit and improving system efficiency.

Additionally, the direct drive of the MCR-T results in greater efficiency and lower noise than typical gearbox-based solutions. MCR-T motors function with a differential pressure of up to bar and the largest version achieves an output torque of up to 8, Nm.

The displacement of the series ranges from ccm to 1, ccm. DW Bosch Rexroth boschrexroth. More conveying options for medical applications The SmartFlex flexible chain conveyor platform, available in an additional 85 mm width standard option, gives designers more options for applications in medical as well as packaging, food, assembly and other industries.

With this addition, SmartFlex Conveyors are now available in 4 standard widths: 65 mm 2. Other sizes that can be specially ordered include: 45 mm 1. These conveyors are engineered to exact customer specifications and shipped in sub-assemblies for fast and easy installation.

With the Online Configurator D-Tools, users can design and engineer simple or complex conveyors to meet their needs in minutes. This configuration tool delivers a complete 3D CAD assembly model for instant validation of fit. Accessories such as infeed and exit powered transfers allow smooth end transfers for products as small as 3 in.

For additional flexibility to move product up or down and around equipment, the SmartFlex Helical Curve, Spiral, and Alpine conveyors are available. The SmartFlex Helical Curve allows incline or decline movement through corners and straights, and provides capability for vertical incline with minimal space.

Both the helical and spiral conveyors have chain design that allows the conveyor to maintain speeds and loads through the angled curve. WHITTET-HIGGINS manufactures quality oriented, stocks abundantly and delivers quickly the best quality and largest array of adjustable, heavy thrust bearing, and torque load carrying retaining devices for bearing, power transmission and other industrial assemblies; and specialized tools for their careful assembly. Call your local or a good distributor.

Integrated control system shortens custom development process Converting machine builder Curt G. Joa, Inc. It must. The machines are massive, occupying two floors with a footprint measuring 60 meters long. They accomplish multiple manufacturing processes, including accepting roll-fed paper material in a continuous motion and automatically splicing products. Not surprisingly, as machine complexity increased so did the design and development time required.

Smarter machines with more automation, communication and integration capabilities entailed more programming and documentation time for the engineers. The lengthy pre-production phase extended company investment and delayed delivery of machines to customers.

With new machines capable. To further help streamline the machine design process, Joa relies on several design-software programs. The engineers use templates within the electrical schematic designs as a base and then. A schematics generator then helps create documentation needed for manufacturing, purchasing, panel building, modeling and more. This bidirectional data transfer helps improve startup time by reducing the need for manually re-entering control data from engineering tools into the Rockwell Software Studio software.

This allows any qualified customer engineer to open up a portal with a VPN connection, access the HMI to see controller operating data, and render the necessary changes. All software on the machines is running on VMWare virtualized servers using thin clients. There is no longer a need for a large-capacity, expensive server, and the virtual environment provides a robust, secure and IoT-ready architecture using fewer servers to run the HMI and other software.

Although Joa customizes each of its machines, the various design-software systems let the machine builder standardize much of its machine design process. With more leadtime in the early design stages, customers benefit too.

They have more opportunity to refine system features, ensuring greater satisfaction after delivery. Faster delivery and commissioning is a competitive advantage for the business.

Looking ahead, Joa plans to build on the synergy between EPLAN and Rockwell Automation as their global-market footprint grows and more customers embrace big data. Most of its customers now have some cloud-based capabilities, and they are looking for more ways to capture key data in smart machines. DW Rockwell rockwellautomation.

Up to chine design ndardized nt can be sta te n co se a b ta da odules. Vacuworx, Tulsa, Okla. The SS 2 atta chment lets The newest addition, the SS 2 vacuum lifting sysa machine lift st eel plate, tem, reportedly improves the versatility of the venersaw cut concrete able skid steer.

The SS 2 attachment lets a machine , granite and marble slab lift steel plate, saw cut concrete, granite and marble s, landscape pavers and othe slabs, landscape pavers and other materials. And, acr materials. The SS 2 can also be used with a variety of mini-excavators or small cranes using a clevis-hook connection. The vacuum system, which features a hydraulically driven vacuum pump, readily mates to any skid steer.

Quick-connect hydraulic hoses and a universal mounting plate make attachment quick and simple, which helps maximize productivity. The compact, aluminum design weighs just 98 lb without mounting plate but has a lifting capacity up to 2, lb. The vacuum pump operates using the auxiliary hydraulics from the host machine minimum 10 gpm required with maximum pressure of 3, psi. The vacuum pump maintains a constant vacuum in a pressure reservoir.

When activated, the system pulls a vacuum between the integrated 24 x 24 in. Tough elastomer-pad seals on the perimeter of the vacuum pad cover the material to be lifted and create the necessary suction. The vacuum seal holds until the operator activates the release — even in the event of a power failure. The SS 2 is suited for floor, sidewalk, driveway, road and landscaping projects. Not only is vacuum lifting a safer alternative than hooks and chains, said Vacuworx officials, it also increases output and productivity.

According to the company, vacuum-lifting systems can handle up to 10 times more material than conventional methods, are safer for workers, and help reduce the risk of accidents and lower payroll and insurance costs. Related Vacuworx vacuum and hydraulic lifting systems are designed for many applications and lift capacities. Standard models lift a variety of materials including steel, plastic and ductile iron pipe, concrete pipe, pre-cast concrete slabs, culverts and road barriers, saw-cut concrete, and steel plate.

Lifters can be attached to excavators and backhoes with or without a coupler system , wheel or track type loaders, cranes, pipe layers, skid steers, forklifts and knuckle booms and can also be mounted for a variety of in-plant applications.

DW Vacuworx vacuworx. Neocortex G2R thanks to its nce can artificial intellige een drink differentiate betw s as well as tie brands and varie cans faster used and unused kers. Robotic flexibly sorts and restocks airline beverage trays The Neocortex Goods to Robot Cell from Universal Robotics soon to be Universal Logic — and no relation to Universal Robots is now working in its fourth real-world application.

The Neocortex Goods to Robot Cell Neocortex G2R for short automates the normally manual task of unloading and restocking airline beverage carts after flights end and the carts return to airline catering kitchens. More specifically, the Neocortex G2R flexibly sorts and replenishes myriad ounce beverage cans for payback on retrofits or new installations in less than a year.

Airline-hub catering kitchens spend copious time replenishing beverages consumed in-flight from 9. Pitching already-opened The Neocortex G2R Cell handles sensor connection, calibration, PLC and robot communication, path planning, obstacle avoidance, vision guidance, inspection, database management, and learning. Airline beve rage replen ishment is the fourth proven applic ation area of the Neoco rtex G2R Cell — with the others bei ng dynamic m achine tending, consu mer products order fulfillment, a nd pharmace uticalunit picking.

It also determines cans that are opened and partially used, or unused and returned. If the can is unused, Neocortex identifies the brand by directing the robot to pick it up and read its label. It then reuses these cans for the next new drawer it assembles — supplementing with new cans as needed based on the prescribed assortment. The Neocortex G2R Cell is the first plugand-play robotic work cell for high-mix applications that must also handle high-volume applications scaled to a human form factor.

Neocortex artificial intelligence provides humanlike flexibility at speeds far faster and more consistent than manual labor. So the Neocortex G2R Cell can handle cartons, bottles, tubes, bags, or cans for up to 1, picks per hour.

SmartUQ is a software tool for uncertainty quantification UQ and analytics that heightens fidelity of engineering and systems analysis by taking account of real-world variability and probabilistic behavior.

Uncertainty quantification is the science of quantifying, characterizing, tracing and managing uncertainty in both computational and real-world systems. UQ seeks to address the problems associated with incorporating real-world variability and probabilistic behavior into engineering and systems analysis.

Nominal—that is, idealized—as opposed to real-world simulations and tests answer the question: What will happen when the system is subjected to a single set of inputs? UQ moves this question into the real world by asking: What is likely to happen when the system is subjected to a range of uncertain and variable inputs? UQ got its start at the intersection of mathematics, statistics and engineering. Drawing together knowledge from each of those fields has yielded a family of system-agnostic capabilities that require no knowledge of the inner workings of a system under study to make predictions about its likely behavior.

Thus, a method that works on an engineering system may be equally applicable to a financial problem that exhibits similar behavior. This makes it possible for many different industries to benefit from advances in UQ. Why UQ? Uncertainty is part of every system. It can arise from variations in measurement accuracies, material properties, use scenarios, modeling approximations and unknown future events.

Uncertainty in model Most simulations are deterministic: the simulation response s are provided based on a given set of model inputs. Simulation results obtained from these input conditions are then compared with criteria derived from a legacy of physical test data.

However, the practice of using extreme model conditions in this way may well fail to model reality with fidelity, and can easily overlook and omit various sources of uncertainties. Moreover, by not accounting for simulation uncertainties, the next steps may be difficult to decipher, as there can be numerous reasons for lack of agreement between simulation results and legacy testbased criteria. UQ: Probabilistic, not deterministic In contrast to that deterministic approach, UQ is a probabilistic approach that systematically accounts for sources of simulation uncertainties.

UQ methods are rapidly being adopted by engineers and modeling professionals across a wide range of industries because they can solve previously unanswerable questions. Quantify confidence in predictions. UQ methodology for statistical calibration. Source: SmartUQ Why now? As computational resources have become dramatically more available and affordable, and simulation and testing have grown increasingly sophisticated and revealing, it has become possible and feasible to accurately predict behavior of more and more real-world system designs.

Today, the frontier of engineering design has advanced to rapidly predicting the behaviors of systems when subjected to uncertain inputs. Monte Carlo methods require generating and evaluating large numbers of system variations, thus becoming computationally too expensive to apply to large-scale problems. More recent methods such as those incorporated in SmartUQ have made UQ easier to apply to small system designs, and feasible and affordable to use on large ones.

Sources and types of uncertainty Uncertainty is an inherent part of the real world, SmartUQ notes. No two physical experiments ever produce exactly the same output values, and many relevant inputs may be unknown or unmeasurable. Uncertainty affects almost all aspects of engineering modeling and design.

Engineers have long dealt with measurement errors, uncertain material properties and unknown design demand profiles by including safety factors. But deeper understanding and quantification of the sources of uncertainty will yield step-function gains in fidelity and quantified confidence of decision-making.

Uncertainties are broadly classified into two categories: aleatoric and epistemic. Thus, it may be considered inherent in a system, and parameters with aleatory uncertainty are best represented using probability distributions.

Examples are the results of rolling dice or radioactive decay. Thus, epistemic uncertainty could conceivably be reduced by gathering the right information, but often is not because of the expense or difficulty of doing so. Examples include batch material properties, manufactured dimensions and load profiles. Common uncertainty sources in simulation and testing Any system input including initial conditions, boundary conditions and transient forcing April These inputs may vary in large, recordable but unknown ways.

This is often the case with operating conditions, design geometries and configurations, loading profiles, weather, and human operator inputs. Uncertain inputs may also be theoretically constant or follow known relationships but have some inherent uncertainty.

This is often the case with variations in measured inputs, manufacturing tolerances and material properties. Uncertainties in simulation and testing appear in boundary conditions, initial conditions, system parameters, and in the systems, models and calculations themselves. They fall into four categories: 1 Uncertain inputs.

Uncertain inputs—Any system input including initial conditions, boundary conditions, and transient forcing functions may be subject to uncertainty. These inputs may vary in large, recordable, but unknown ways. This is often the case with measured inputs, manufacturing tolerances and material property variations. Model form and parameter uncertainty— Every model is an approximation of reality.

Modeling uncertainty is the result of assumptions, approximations and errors made when creating the model. Using gravity as an example, the Newtonian model of gravity had errors in the model form that were corrected by general relativity. Thus, there is model form uncertainty in the predictions made using the Newtonian model of gravity. In addition, the parameters of both these models, such as gravitational acceleration, are subject to uncertainty and error. This uncertainty is often the result of errors in measurements or estimations of physical properties and can be reduced by using calibration to adjust the relevant parameters as more information becomes available.

Computational and numerical uncertainty— To run simulations and solve many mathematical models, it is necessary to simplify or approximate the underlying equations, and this introduces computational errors such as truncation and convergence error. For the same system and model, these errors can vary among different numerical solvers, and are dependent on the approximations and settings used for each solver.

Further numerical errors are introduced by the limitations of machine precision and rounding errors inherent in digital systems. Uncertainty in physical testing—In physical testing, uncertainty arises from uncontrolled or unknown inputs, measurement errors, aleatoric phenomena, and limitations in the design and implementation of tests such as maximum resolution and spatial averaging.

These uncertainties result in noisy experimental data, and can necessitate replication and reproduction of scientific experiments to attempt to reduce the uncertainties in desired measurements. This requires a high degree of confidence in the relevance of simulation results to the real world.

For engineers, the benefit of UQ is to become better aware and informed of the uncertainties present in simulation results when using them to make critical design decisions. Better informed decision-making leads to better product development outcomes. It was developed in cooperation with leading companies in the plastics industry. It is easy to operate and is suitable to experts and users without CAD know-how.

In the Viewer, calculations take place quickly and precisely. During the process, the wall thickness check also detects areas with heavy changes in wall thickness. Due to the fully automatic calculation of the projected area, the clamp force and thus the machine design can be determined with just a few mouse clicks without any CAD knowledge.

Moreover, the Viewer has dynamic cutting as well as measuring functions. Analysis functions are supplemented by geometric model comparison, to indicate differences between models of different formats.

Additionally, for DMU examinations, there is a function to determine collisions in assemblies as well as to calculate clearances between all single parts or components and all surrounding parts. The latest version enables the creation of explosion views that can be animated as well as drawing creation as DWG files. Floating licenses with a borrowing function enable a simple, flexible use of the software within and outside of companies.

Drive web server access module. Sinamics V20 Smart Access web server module mounts directly onto a drive, transforming a. This module provides a WI-FI hot spot, which facilitates setup, programming, commissioning, production monitoring and maintenance on machines and production equipment. The module has a simple, embedded graphical user interface GUI.

No separate app is required, nor is a written operator manual needed. Communication distance is up to meters, enabling access to drives located in difficult to reach areas. A built-in, multi-color LED quickly shows status readout. In use, the Sinamics V20 Smart Access module requires only a few steps to set-up and no installation or download of additional software is needed.

Users can monitor drive status including speed, current, voltage, temperature and power, as well as drive servicing, with an overview of alarms, faults and individual values. Fault codes can be transferred with e-mail to a local service provider. Parameter adjustment, motor test functions and full data backup, storage and sharing with fast firmware downloads can all be accomplished with the web server.

DW Siemens Digital Factory usa. Protect products during delivery A next-generation accelerometer is for long-period monitoring of the physical. With its low power capabilities, the ADXL micropower high-g MEMS accelerometer targets Internet of Things IoT solutions where shock and impact on a unit during storage, transit, or use would adversely affect its function, safety, or reliability.

Representative assets include materials inside shipping and storage containers, factory machinery, and battery powered products where there may be lengthy quiet periods punctuated by spontaneous, severe impacts. The resulting low current requirement of less than two microamps while waiting for an impact typically yields years of operation from a single small battery when the sensor is used in a motion-activated system. Keeping the analysis localized saves power, time, and prevents unnecessary transfer of data for an event that is actually insignificant.

DW Analog Devices analog. Utilizing a patented winged element design for higher bond strength and improved fatigue resistance, the Raptor delivers:. I nter net of Things. Designed as an off-the-shelf approach for quick turnaround needs, the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT Smart PT Select Mounted Spherical Roller Bearings suit conveyor and fan and blower applications in the aggregate, air and fluid handling, cement, and material and package handling industries.

A suite of digital technology is built into and around this bearing. N EWS Legacy equipment holds valuable untapped data that is needed to improve business processes and decisions in almost every enterprise and every industry. The partnership between IBM and Opto 22 enables developers to rapidly design, prototype, and deploy applications to connect existing industrial assets to the IBM Watson IoT platform and share their data, capabilities, and resources with other connected systems and assets, to build the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT.

Through this partnership, developers and systems integrators have a concise toolset for connecting the OT and IT domains.

The partnership combines more than 40 years of OT domain expertise and innovation from Opto 22 with more than years of IT domain expertise and innovation from IBM. The Watson IoT Platform reduces the need to focus on developing analytics systems and provides everything needed to harness the full potential of the Internet of Things.

Developers can connect, set up, and manage edge-processing devices like programmable automation controllers from Opto 22 and apply realtime analytics, cognitive services, and blockchain technology to the data generated by these devices. Cognitive APIs deliver natural-language processing, machine-learning capabilities, text analytics, and image analytics to help developers realize the potential of the cognitive era with the IBM Watson IoT Platform.

Connecting existing industrial assets to IT systems requires translating the electrical signals voltage and current in the physical world to the bits and bytes of the digital world.

These industrial products also communicate and support well-known Internet technologies to support IIoT applications. The future of industrial automation and process control lies in the rising API and data economies made possible through open standards-based technologies. Your Total Power Solution The most trusted brands, all under one roof.

Canfield Connector offers a complete line of highquality sensors at value pricing. We offer tie rod and groove mount products to cover a full range of applications. We also provide NEMA 6 designs, hazardous location versions and custom wire types and lengths. DW Opto 22 opto At the recent Hannover Messe Preview in Germany, a new collaborative industrial robot was unveiled, dubbed Franka Emika. Consequently, investment is project specific and cannot be depreciated over several projects.

Franka Emika, which features 7 degrees of freedom, is a first-generation collaborative robot system that is designed to assist humans.

The construction is completely modular, ultra-lightweight. It has a highly integrated mechatronic design, sensitive torque sensors in all joints, and human-like kinematics, making the system unique. Users can also seamlessly stream its data tom connect with Industry 4. It provides quick-buttons to customize the apps and to execute their features. The pilot is essential for teaching the robot via demonstration. For example, the user can simply press the guiding button and take the robot by hand to teach it what to do.

After it learns the task, it operates. Franka Hand can grasp firmly and quickly for high performance and flexible pick and place. The fingers can be exchanged to optimally grasp a wide variety of objects. Due to its force-sensitivity and compliance, it can release and lock the fixture mechanism of its fingers by itself. Hence, different optimized fingers can be seamlessly integrated into any automation processes, and manual tool exchanges become almost unnecessary. DW Franka Emika franka. Our No.

One or multiple locations. Handles very small to extra large fasteners. Patients treated on the GammaPod will likely only need between one to five treatments in order to eradicate certain breast cancers, which is much shorter than the current six-week, five days a week course of radiation.

At the core of this new machine is a moving bed for a prone patient and a patented two-cup system that holds and stabilizes the breast with the target. This allows a targeted and powerful dose of radiation using 36 Cobalt sources that can be administered in new and unique ways, with less dose to normal tissue. The GammaPod from Xcision Medical Systems aims to eliminate early stage breast cancer with as little as one treatment.

A highly accurate and targeted radiation dose means less dosing to healthy tissue. Rotary servo table drives optoacoustic imaging system Scientists at Tomowave Laboratories use technologies based on light and sound to make imaging systems for the healthcare industry. These technologies use optoacoustic and laser ultrasonic methods to produce modalities such as a laser optoacoustic ultrasonic imaging system, which uses pulses of laser light with a dark red color.

Optoacoustic tomography OAT is a technique for generating highresolution images of biological tissue that scatters light waves, typically biological tissue. Biological tissue absorbs this light, causing it to heatup by a fraction of one degree. The resulting temperature increase causes an increase in pressure, which generates ultrasonic optoacoustic waves. The imaging scanner uses arrays of transducers to measure these ultrasound waves at different locations to generate images of internal tissue of different human and animal organs, such as breast or prostate.

These systems listen to the sound of light, allowing doctors to detect and diagnose cancer and other conditions. Recently, engineers at Tomowave developed a system that combines light and sound to generate three-dimensional images of tissue submerged in the imaging module, primarily the tissue of small animals used for research purposes and development of new contrast agents or therapeutic methods.

This optoacoustic tomography system is the first of its kind to produce functional 3D images of biological tissue with equally high resolution in each volumetric direction. The system provides comprehensive information on anatomy and function. These images are especially useful for studying the distribution of blood and its oxygenation level. Imaging module Preclinical research systems rotate the object of study, while the module itself rotates in systems used in clinical settings such as breast imaging systems.

Noninvasive breast imaging systems apply the same technology to produce three-dimensional volumetric optoacoustic images and a stack of two-dimensional ultrasonic images, allowing for image co-registration.

These systems produce scans at different wavelengths in minutes with minimal patient discomfort. Custom software processes the volumetric data according to the specific items of interest, which may include hemoglobin content, oxygen saturation and vasculature visualization. The imaging system uses a PSRUT low-profile rotary servo table from IntelLiDrives to rotate the imaging module at a constant speed, which is programmed in advance.

The movement is designed using precise motor controls, gear boxes, and linear bearings, as well as five linear encoders on the bed and two rotary encoders on the bowl system. Even movements that occur while the system is without power are translated into accurate values once the system is powered up again.

The absolute encoders are used for a secondary positional measurement to verify correct positioning which ensures the accuracy of the delivered dose. The direct mounting and absolute calibration provide real-time quality assurance of the bed positioning system.

With a patient lying face down on the machine bed, rather than on their back, the breast to be treated naturally falls further away from the chest wall, helping to minimize dose to organs in that region.

These linear encoders are directly mounted on the two table support columns. On each column, Xcision separately monitors the height and lateral offset of the table and the fifth monitors the length axis. The linear encoders are rigidly mounted to the table. The LIC exposed encoders are characterized by permitting absolute position measurement both over large traverse paths up to 28 m , at high accuracy and at high traversing speed, although Xcision only needs around mm of travel.

The absolute nature of the linear encoders is critical because it allows for detection of primary system failure or calibration error. According to Maton, with the redundant secondary system, the position of the patient is confirmed to be free of such failure or calibration errors, thus ensuring treatment of the correct location in the breast.

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Our local sales and service specialists are experts in providing application and technical solutions, with the choices and expertise you need to stay up and running. We had started off with relative magnetic encoders in our design, but they were not satisfactory for a couple of reasons. First, we had the problem of having to rotate very slowly in order to find the zero point at each power.

The inner cup is designed to. M ot i o n constrain the shape of the breast. Suction between the cups gently pulls the breast to completely fill the inner cup, and immobilize it.

The patient is imaged on a CT scanner, then without removing the cup, moved to the treatment device and the cup is locked into the treatment bed. A copper wire referred to as a fiducial marker embedded in the cup is used to establish a 3D coordinate system which is used for treatment planning to create the bed position sequence control points for the treatment.

The focused and concentrated dose of radiation is delivered according to this sequence. The focus means that the dose will fall off sharply outside the target volume, reducing dose to healthy breast tissue, organs such as the heart and lungs, and to the skin.

This decrease in collateral dose minimizes unwanted exposure and side effects. The planned treatment is based on the established coordinate system and motion control, and includes a specific amount of time for the radiation beams to remain in each position in order to achieve the correct distribution of dose.

The system is designed to match a planned dose and delivered dose within one millimeter. But they may be involved in the design of highperformance servo-controlled systems in which mechanical parameters such as stiffness, mass, and damping are interchangeable with proportional, integral and derivative parameters of a PID controller. So, the design or sizing of mechanical components for automated setups should be done with good understanding of the motion controller and its associated filters.

The tool interface is shown in Figure one: Overview of the tutorial webtool. Based on a simple positioning system model, it lets users change both PID and mechanical parameters of the model and observe their effects on system performance. Design or sizing mechanical components for automated designs is more effective with an understanding of motion controllers.

Relationship of servo parameters and mechanical phenomena PID servo parameters and mechanical design parameters of high-performance automation tools are closely related. One self-study webtool can demonstrate the effects of both servo and mechanical parameters of a typical positioning system on its dynamic performance and stability. The tool we demonstrate lets users select stage parameters that characterize the actual plant — and then use iterative strategies to select an optimal set of PID parameters to maximize overall system performance for robust, safe, and stable operation.

Block diagram and system modeling The block diagram of the model as shown in Figure two: Block diagram of the model represents a simplified closed-loop servo system of a positioning stage. It includes a PID controller, a stage plant , feedback loop, reference position command Xr and actual stage position X.

X is sensed by an encoder or by any other positioning feedback device. They are the most influential mechanical parameters on the dynamic performance of most positioning systems. Input parameters are in yellow boxes. Results are in blue boxes. Settling time after a step input is shown on the upper chart. Frequency responses of the plant PID controller as well as closed-loop and open-loop transfer functions are shown on the bottom. Access this tool at optineer.

Also use the tool for learning by changing system parameters and clicking RUN again to observe their effects on results. As shown in figure two, a driving motor force F acts on the stage block as an input and results in the actual stage position X as an output.

Transfer functions and phase angles The explicit relationship between the output X and input Xr of the closed-loop servo system requires simultaneous solution of the two differential equations. The solution is simplified from differential equations in time domain t to algebraic equations in frequency domain s by using their Laplace transform. The Laplace transform H s of our closed-loop transfer function is represented:.

The phase of output X with respect to input Xr is measured in degrees. That makes it a positive feedback inside the controller and a source for possible instability of the closed-loop servo system.

Plant frequency response and stability of closed-loop servo systems When we RUN the webtool after clicking EXAMPLE, the results in the blue boxes below the stage parameters show two important stage characteristics of any automation system — the lowest natural resonance frequency and the damping coefficient.

High performance machines are typically designed for high stiffness K and low moving mass M to get the highest value for the lowest natural frequency.

The frequency response Bode plot of the stage is shown in Figure three: Frequency response of the stage plant. In this figure, we see that the gain has an approximately constant value all the way up to the natural frequency. At the natural frequency, the gain increases with a peak bounded by the magnitude of the damping coefficient. Similarly, the phase starts at zero degrees in low frequencies.

Designing hydraulic systems to perform flawlessly under less-than-ideal conditions is hard enough. The Lee Company. Plus many applications in between. If you require precise fluid control, and absolute reliability, go with the experts. Contact The Lee Company. C o n t r o l Real dynamic systems have multiple natural frequencies and usually multiple axes. But the single-axis model in this webtool is a good performance estimator of most positioning systems.

Optimal choices for the simple model have mass, stiffness, and damping parameters that yield the lowest natural frequency and damping coefficient of the more complex system. These two-system characteristics are easily measured for any complex system by an impact test and an accelerometer that traces settling time decay.

PID controller frequency response Many control systems have in addition to a position-feedback loop inner velocity and current feedback loops. Yet they all share the same basic closed-loop transfer function H s as shown in figure three.

The difference is in the complexity of their H s expression and the numbers of zeros and poles, with which the controller filters are shaped. A zero is a frequency at which the gain becomes zero, and a pole is the frequency at which the gain goes to infinity.

Although these complex filters are beyond the scope of this tool, the PID as used in our model is considered a classic filter, which is used in many controllers. It is simple having only one pole and two zeros , relatively easy to understand, and a good one with which to start training for an intuitive understanding of servo-system performance. M o t i o n When we click RUN, the corner-points results of the integral and derivative gains appear in the blue boxes below the yellow PID parameters.

Corner points are the frequencies where the integral gain and the derivative gain cross the proportional gain. Together they define the shape of a trough, as shown in Figure four: Frequency response of the PID controller. TTI Norte: is another little company in Santander, which was responsible of the specific communications protocol develop-ment for Nanosat The baseline design is with fixed solar panels, but a design rotating along Xs axis is available if specifically required.

Propulsion will be an add-on module when needed. Next Fig. Each mission is particular in its design or configuration, and the blocks will change in accordance with the needs. This approach gives much more flexibility for accommodation, and optimises the volume occupation.

Figure 6 shows as an example the Nanosat PDU four level boards and mother board total mass is 1,4 Kg. When required by a specific box, a common back plane design is also available to interconnect the different boards inside that particular unit. For limited redesigns we go directly to PFM after delta qualifications. Nevertheless, we usually apply important simplifications: 48 M.

The EM units are submitted to a temperature cycle at ambient pressure, to check the behaviour of the design at the limits. After the required functional test, the Flight units passed just the environmental acceptance tests at satellite level. Is it a luxury to have a full functional QM satellite? To some extent yes. In our case it is justified due to the need of building up some further sister satellites i. On top of that, it is of great benefit to have two operational satellites during the development and during the in orbit acceptance campaign.

The SVM has a primary structure with an H shape where all its units are attached. Just the antennas and the HPA final stage of the X-Band transmitter for thermal reasons , are supported by the 4 external panels made in a light Aluminium honeycomb. Given the size of the inner panels and the load factor that also supports the Payload mass they are made from a solid aluminium alleviated plate.

Thermal control is based on the classical passive design, using when required multilayer thermal isolations in the external sides, and radiators where required.

Inside the satellite all units are finished in black and in good thermal contact with the structure when adequate for heat rejection. Only the Lithium-ion battery carries heaters to keep it between adequate limits, but most of the time they are off. Thermal control in principle shall be independent from the SVM, but certain coupling is unavoidable. This is critical, as the design is just single string. Only the TTC transceiver is redundant 50 M. The new design was initiated in Nov.

This decision is also challenging due to this recent and still in development high speed technology for space, sponsored by ESA. Although only the transmitter is sufficient for MicroSat, we will make also a receiver in order to qualify it in orbit for other applications. Additionally, it could provide a backup TTC channel for the uplink that will increase the mission reliability.

Part of the development effort spent on the new digital Modem, will be reused in this band with speed requirements going up to 20—40 Mbps.

Nanosat-1B is an Earth pointing satellite due to the medium gain UHF helix antenna, required to improve the store and forward communications with mobile terminals on ground. Either air coils or magnetorods together with 4 reaction wheels are the baseline actuators. It only takes one second to give such angular speed to the satellite. Nevertheless, it is envisaged that the reaction wheels will be needed for the fine pointing after any rotation manoeuvre, and to desaturate the AGA when required.

Number of modes and transition rules are now been studied. The number of strings connected to this bus in real time will be in accordance with the required power in the satellite. The previous experience developing and operating other small satellites will be of great benefit. Nanosat-1B is a sister satellite, that will be launched in to complement the store and forward communication mission of the first mission.

Since Nov. This again will follow the same principles and development rules of Nanosat, together with the acquired know-how and lessons learned up to now. The target for the MicroSat development planning since the programme presentation in Oct. The wheels and coil torquers will be the nominal actuators.

We will like also to thank INTA top level management, for their big support and encouraging recommendations along the past years. Reference 1. Angulo, MR. Canchal, JM. Mi, P. Baker, Philip Davies, and Lee Boland Abstract This paper outlines the heritage and future plans of SSTL in enabling high performance cost effective Earth observation services through constellations of small spacecraft.

The paper will discuss two new spacecraft for customers in Spain and Nigeria, and how these meet traditional needs for Earth Observation data at a low cost. The range of payload options which SSTL can offer for a wide variety of Earth imaging applications covering high and medium resolution, wide area coverage, frequent revisits and near real-time tasking and data return in various wavebands, including visible light and microwave will be discussed.

Baker et al. The Beijing-1 microsatellite was added to the constellation after launch in October Satellites can cover hundreds to hundreds of thousands of square kilometres, depending on the resolution, against hundreds of square kilometres for aerial platforms. In contrast, a typical small spacecraft such as NigeriaSat-2 can be built for an order of magnitude less, will offer a GSD as low as 2 m, and can offer daily repeat with as few as 2 spacecraft, both of which can be positioned using a single low cost launcher.

The plots above demonstrate the increasing capability of cameras and sensor arrays available for small satellite platforms, enabling attractive combinations of wide field of regard, rapid repeat and high resolution to be affordable.

RapidEye aims to deliver Earth agricultural and insurance industry specific information products derived from multispectral wide area Earth Observation data. RapidEye will serve 3 markets: 1. Agricultural Insurance: supporting the loss adjustment process by provision of regularly updated field maps. Agricultural Producers: assisting precision farming by regularly providing information about crop conditions and yield predictions.

International Institutions: assessing expected crop harvests and monitor usage of subsidies for disaster relief. Spain DMC is funded through anticipated data sales to a small set of countries, and will reach new levels of image throughput performance for the next generation DMC constellation. To this end, subsystem design changes include i. Replacement of NiCd battery with higher capacity, greater Depth of Discharge, higher energy density and longer life Li-Ion battery.

Improving the imager resolution has been increased from 32 m to 22 m at nadir without reducing swath, by utilising a custom lens and the latest CCD linear array, while maintaining overall mass, envelope and power consumption.

Digitisation fidelity has also been improved from 8 to 10 bit. The operations strategy targets maximum imaging time in the sunlit part of the orbit. Operating modes with imaging and downlinking data during each orbit, and imaging orbits followed by downlinking orbits have been developed. A key customer requirement is to deliver complete coverage of Spain and Portugal within 5 days using a combination of operating modes.

This requires a significant increase in the number of scenes per day delivered to the customer, compared to the original Moving Towards Commercial Earth Observation Services 61 DMC spacecraft. A balance is struck between covering the maximum area per orbit, which requires a subsequent orbit or orbits to downlink all the data, and reducing the area covered but allowing all operations to be conducted within an orbit. A future goal for SSTL missions is to allow stripmap imaging, where the imager can be run continuously in parallel to downlinking for the sunlit part of the orbit.

This would deliver up to 12M km2 of imagery per orbit, assuming the ground segment could handle this data throughput! NigeriaSat-2, weighing about kg at launch, will feature a high-capacity solid-state onboard recorder with a gigabyte memory and an X-band downlink capacity exceeding megabits per second.

In excess of accurately geolocated images with a 2. NigeriaSat-2, shown above will be built in 30 months and is scheduled for launch in mid along with a co-passenger NigeriaSat-X which will be an advanced training model for the Nigerian engineers who began their training with the NigeriaSat-1 DMC spacecraft launched in Moving Towards Commercial Earth Observation Services 63 4 Payloads for Small Satellites SSTL has carefully studied the Earth Observation market, and has made efforts to ensure that its platforms are applicable to a range of payloads operating in various wavebands outside the visible spectrum, and carrying out activities in addition to electro-optical imaging.

Missions studies have ranged from altimetry, geolocating electronic intelligence signals, spectrometry of a wide range of atmospheric species and greenhouse gases, and both active and passive microwave imaging. Mindful of the breadth of the market for Earth Observation and small satellites, SSTL spacecraft continue to be designed in an adaptable modular fashion which can support multiple payload options. Two popular options are detailed below: SSTL developed the wide area medium resolution SLIM-6 camera, shown below, and in acquired the optical instrument capability of the UK firms Sira electrooptics, which developed the Beijing-1 microsatellite high resolution imager, also shown below: Fig.

Primary on Medium Res. Sub-1 m GSD performance using a microsatellite platform is being examined by SSTL in collaboration with a leading UK payload provider, allowing additional production capacity to meet the requirements of future constellations.

Monitoring the rate of calving of the Greenland ice sheet, which would raise global sea level temperatures by 7 m, were it to melt entirely. CHRIS is currently the highest resolution capability spectrometer in orbit, and with a mass of only 14 kg and a power draw of 8 W is a highly attractive payload for a small spacecraft. Example applications include mapping aerosol concentrations, water and land surface use, and chlorophyll concentrations.

Leaf angle is indicator of crop ripeness 6 Supporting Mission Elements SSTL also offers a number of supporting capabilities to give a spacecraft mission appropriate utility: r r r r Ground stations, fixed or mobile. Launch contracts, operations and operational support contracts, as well as image data processing, sales and marketing.

Sale of a complete range of ITAR free spacecraft subsystems. Know-How transfer and Training, in the form of i Improving customer ability to specify and procure low cost space systems, ii Training technical organisations in the SSTL approach to space systems development and iii Training spacecraft operators.

These are now a mature technology and have demonstrated their potential as a product with complementary performances to more conventional mission solutions. With continued advances in technology, new areas in Earth observation are being explored and applications like high resolution-, hyper spectral- and small SAR radar missions become feasible with a PROBA scale platform and its derivatives.

As small satellite missions become more ambitious, so the space industry is adapting to the challenge of creating organisations which can deliver the advantages of small satellite technology while retaining compatibility with international data standards and operating practices.

This paper will outline high-performance solutions for future Earth observation missions, highlighting the role that cutting-edge technologies have to delivering unique capability to meet customer needs. Bermyn, C.

Dorn 1 Small Missions Heritage 1. HRC instrument — 4 m pan images and has agility to execute demanding mapping and push-broom scanning scenarios e. CHRIS instrument — 18 m multispectral images. Although designed for a lifetime of only 2 years, PROBA 1 is now functioning in-orbit for more than 5 years and providing earth observation images through ESA to the science community on a daily basis. In the meantime, its successor PROBA 2 carrying sun observation instruments is under final integration at Verhaert Space and is planned for launch early Dorn 1.

It has since been producing high quality imagery to satisfy a range of user requests. The purpose of the programme is primarily to demonstrate the ability to build and operate a low cost optical satellite capable of generating high quality imagery. A flexible response to the customers needs is the hallmark of the QinetiQ-Verhaert approach. Simplified programmatic structures, integrated teams, on-board automation and new technologies all have their part to play in reducing costs.

The mission must be 72 J. Dorn viewed as a complete system and the component segments design to minimise through life costs by matching risk with customer expectation and technical solutions.

To date, the application field stays limited to imagery with up to a few meters of ground resolution and a few spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. Clearly, this is driven by the resources and performances available on small platforms but thanks to the evolving technologies on payloads and platform side a lot of other applications come within our reach. Small missions will never be suited, and are not intended, to replace the full capability of large systems, but they will be a very interesting complement to it.

Over the years, several concepts and ideas wore worked out to show the potential of our PROBA platform for emerging applications. Indeed, we can talk about the Proba Spacecraft Family of which some key potential is highlighted hereafter. Several studies were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of following missions based on a PROBA platform: 2.

These offer the possibility of even smaller and more electrically efficient sub-systems. Multi — and hyper spectral instruments work typical at lower resolutions but generate huge amounts of data. Here solutions can be worked out in several areas, starting with data capturing optimisation to reduce the capture of un-usable data , data compression and storage and high power downlink capacity. Studies are ongoing to fly optimised systems with shorter lifetime less redundancy on a small platform, and investigation continues in to low altitude missions.

Before entering in a very ambitious science mission, critical technologies can be developed and demonstrated in orbit in a fast and cost-effective way. In addition to the existing LEO applications of small spacecraft, new missions are being developed to utilise small satellites in other Earth orbits.

These can be coupled with a range of propulsion systems for new mission solutions. Dorn 2. As small missions prime, we enter the so-called Mid-Tier segment, where challenging missions based on small satellite platforms will be developed. Small missions require smart and innovative solutions but at the same time they have to stay affordable and require realisation within reasonable timescales.

The QinetiQ-Verhaert teaming allows such mission to be undertaken in an appropriate and efficient way, with the right priority small mission are a key account for us. Furthermore, we combine the flexibility and cost efficient approach of smaller organisations with the quality standards, facilities and credibility of larger organisations.

During the summer , 33 students from the International Space University ISU worked on a project aiming at making EO accessible to small countries and regions. Although EO programs are costly to initiate, they are often feasible and beneficial for small countries and regions. However an information gap exists between EO providers and decision makers.

As small satellites are amongst the cheapest systems to develop and launch, this will often be the preferred option of small countries and regions, and the selection tool is thus likely to bring benefits to the small satellite industry.

The region of Catalonia, one of the three test cases studied in the project, is used as example to illustrate this statement. Examples of such decision makers include resource managers, urban and regional planners; agricultural producers and disaster first responders.

Examples of EO applications include facilitating public services and natural resource management. Earth Observation data can be especially useful for small countries and regions in assisting their future development.

However a gap often exists between the capabilities of EO systems to serve applications and the knowledge base of decision makers about EO capabilities, especially at the level of small countries and regions. EO programs are often technologically complex and costly to initiate and are therefore difficult to develop with the limited budget of a small country or region.

However, in some cases, small countries and regions that A. Schoenmaker carefully investigate and develop EO programs can establish their own EO programs despite the cost and complexity issues. Alternatively, cooperation between regions or small countries can allow regions to overcome resource constraints and lack of expertise to harness the potential of these powerful technologies.

Small countries and regions establishing EO capacity, whether they are cooperating or not, must determine the most cost-effective way of implementing this capacity. Several options exist for these actors to take full advantage of EO technology to answer their needs. Amongst them, buying existing data, obtaining data free of charge or commercially, or developing their own system, are the most realistic ones. Developing a space-based system for a small country or region with a limited budget almost automatically implies small satellites.

The prototype was developed using three test cases that have shown an interest in developing an EO program: Catalonia, Spain; Alsace, France; and the Island of Mauritius. Earth observations are a technologically complex and costly set of tools that can be instituted effectively for small countries and regions, if developed appropriately.

Five major, non-exclusive options for developing EO capacity were identified: 1. Obtain EO data from existing aerial and satellite EO data providers; Establish aerial EO programs; Develop locally owned and operated satellite EO systems small satellites ; Create a data processing centre that converts data to information for decision makers; or 5. Any or all of the above in cooperation with another small country or region.

EO developers must assess the applications, needs, technical capabilities, and policy and legal implications of using the technology. Developing an Earth Observation project is a truly interdisciplinary work, and this is how this project was put together. The following figures show how the same EO process can be seen from different perspectives: technical and financial.

Indeed, the technical process is a very important aspect of an EO system, but a country or region envisaging building its own EO system should not overlook Small Satellites and Earth Observation Systems for Small Countries and Regions 79 Fig.

An understanding of the financial considerations for EO programs is one of the most essential points. A proposed value chain for EO systems, from the EO provider and to the end users who exploit the information is shown in Fig. The principal concepts applied to the value chain are the EO ventures analyzed, cost estimating methods and financing options. When a small country or region develops EO programs, the national and international policies and legal framework for space should also be considered, in concert with the technological development path and program financing.

Given this technological, financial and legal context for EO program development, small countries and regions are often best served by employing a cooperative model, e.

Using a cooperative model, small countries and regions can overcome obstacles and develop EO programs that meet the specific needs of the region. The SOL project encompasses all these different aspects of EO to find out the best options for small countries or regions, whose decision makers are the targets of this study. Apart from providing an interdisciplinary background in Earth Observations the project also includes three test cases and the idea of a tool, which will be discussed next.

The local economy of Catalonia is highly 80 A. Schoenmaker dependent on tourism and industry. Agriculture, including viticulture and cereals, is also an important factor for the economy.

Currently, private industry and academic research centers comprise the extent of EO capabilities in Catalonia; however, interest in expanding EO capability locally has grown recently. This project has identified an opportunity for Catalonia to consider developing a regional EO system to stimulate local industry and to improve the use of EO for current and future applications.

EO can be useful in Catalonia for viticulture, mapping, environmental monitoring, disaster management, and humanitarian aid. Catalonia is currently using EO data for some applications, but the region could further capitalize on EO technology and build capacity in EO system development. Given the current capacity and the potential budget for EO systems, a small dedicated satellite is one viable option for Catalonia.

Such a system could satisfy some of the technical EO needs e. Different sectors where EO could be useful for Catalonia have been analyzed, starting with vineyards. The analysis of the density and vigor of the vine canopy is an essential tool to assess the yield and quality of the wine. To achieve such target, a minimum spatial resolution of at least 1. This requirement is driven by the conventional vineyard row spacing. Unfortunately this resolution does not provide sufficient resolution for the development of precise viticulture.

Therefore, another proposed option which should supplement the space-based solutions is based on airborne systems in combination with on-site ground observations. This sensor is an optical multispectral sensor, offering a typical spatial resolution below 1 m, depending on the flight altitude. Concerning environmental applications, there is a wide range of EO applications that could be tackled by means of different solutions space-, airborne- or groundbased , and within the set budget constraints.

Considering the general approach of this particular example, the possible solutions are very broad. One of the alternatives would be to buy data from the huge number of currently orbiting satellites and sensing systems scattered around the world. Another possibility would be to make use of airborne systems in combination with on-site ground observations. A feasible space-based solution could be based on the use of a micro-satellite, with medium-to-high resolution sensors.

An example of implementation would be the use of a suitable platform to be integrated in the DMC-2 constellation, with a CHRIS sensor achieving spatial resolutions of about 17 m. With this proposed system operating in LEO orbits, a vast range of applications could be developed, as is the case of mapping and monitoring to assess the change of the territory over time, precision agriculture, urban planning in coastal areas to avoid denaturalization Small Satellites and Earth Observation Systems for Small Countries and Regions 81 of the seashore, forestry, water shed control, wetlands monitoring in the Ebro river delta, coastal erosion control, snow measurement in the Pyrenees, etc.

This new development is very encouraging for the small satellite industry in Spain, and is related to the third important application in Catalonia: Disaster management. In this case, the SOL report advised that the revisit time of the EO systems should be relatively short. Revisiting times below one or two days would be desired for a proper management of river flooding, as well as for the identification of the current state of infrastructures under the effects of any natural disaster of short life time.

That is why any new satellite should be integrated into an already flying constellation, such as DMC.

The same kind of micro-satellite could be used by Catalonia for mapping purposes. After this analysis it is thus striking to see all the possible applications of the capabilities of a micro-satellite in this region, whilst staying in a limited budget. These proposed systems would however be best developed in cooperation with other regions or countries in order to facilitate technology transfer, to encourage political ties between regions, to improve EO system capabilities e.

This is an aspect that is now being addressed by Deimos Imaging by entering into the DMC constellation. Schoenmaker EO capacity building in Catalonia could result in valuable economic and social spin-offs for the region. High-tech EO systems can be beneficial for the local economy by stimulating economic growth, industry, commercial development, and fostering new ventures in EO.

This would occur if Catalonia began developing its own satellites or if the region established other EO competencies. A data processing center, for example, could serve regional data processing needs, stimulate revenues for the region, and provide a mechanism for Catalonia to assist other regions in harnessing the potential benefits from EO. A center of this type could be based on a public-private partnership PPP model. EO capacity building in Catalonia could also encourage scientific and technology competitiveness and promote scientific education.

GEOSS is a project that attempts to centralize the existing EO databases in order to facilitate gap analysis in available data and enhance dissemination and sharing of existing EO data. However the scope of GEOSS is limited to sharing observational data and connecting information from separate sources. The usefulness of the GEOSS centralized database will be limited to experienced users that have already identified the datasets that they need.

Accessing GEOSS requires technical expertise in EO technology; potential users need a simple tool to help them target needed data and assess the cost. As a result, the need to map and centralize existing technologies, research centers, and added-value actors remains despite the more recent efforts.

A tool such as SOLST could assist users to target the appropriate options of datasets for a particular application or interest. This issue is pressing for small regions and countries with limited resources. The restricted financial capacity places emphasis on a tool that can facilitate a search for existing and future EO tools, giving preferential consideration to cooperation models with other participants in EO.

The system architecture of the proposed tool is composed of databases, an electronic interface, and linkages between the databases and interface. The databases consist of specific information about EO applications, data types and availability, and estimated system and data costs. These databases link together in such a way that multiple outputs can be selected, depending on the level of detail sought by the tool user. The tool selects EO options with a set of criteria like budget, technical requirements, applications, and cooperation opportunities.

The criteria are not ranked by order of importance. Small Satellites and Earth Observation Systems for Small Countries and Regions 83 The intentions of the user are divided into three main options: building a system; searching for datasets; searching for added-value services e.

A combination of these three options could be selected. A cooperation entry can lead to both an output tutorial on cooperative models and an access to posted inquiries. The four entries can be independently left blank if unknown by the user.

If all are left blank, the user will be directed to a high level introduction to EO applications and its potential. A search and selection tool can help accomplish this. The beneficiaries of SOLST could include decision makers at different levels, technical EO users, and small countries and regions that are open to collaboration.

The primary objectives of SOLST are: r r r r r r To increase the awareness of the potential of EO through a high level introduction and application-based description; To bridge the gap between the potential users of EO systems; To provide an initial set of available EO options based on user selection criteria, and to give a preliminary overview of options prior to making a local or global decision; To guide small countries or regions through the decision-making process by facilitating the identification and definition of an EO system that meets their needs; To enhance collaboration options particularly for small countries or regions through the use of a Forum and a posted inquiries compartment; and To provide technical EO users an accessible database of EO systems.

SOLST incorporates three primary functions. Apart from the search selection tool, an information request option and a forum section should also be included, to answer the needs of the users that are not met in the tool itself.

For example it will allow them to ask for a summary describing the legal aspects of remote sensing, or to interact with other users of the tool to enhance communication and help cooperation. Schoenmaker Several implementation and maintenance options for the tool have been proposed and a prototype database has been constructed.

However, this needs further and long-term development and testing to evolve in an operational tool. First, it would increase the awareness of decision makers about the capabilities of small satellite technology and therefore increase the demand. For a region like Catalonia, which already has an interest in Earth Observation technology, the tool mainly confirms the option that a small satellite would best suit their needs. It adds however that cooperation would be the best way to go about it, and gives an approximation of the total cost that would have to be invested in such a system.

This rapidly accessible information might quicken the process for local decision-makers. The EO documents available in the tool also give them information about already existing small satellite programs. In this case the tool gives an easy access to information about the sought after technology. In other cases, the tool and the available EO introductory documents might be the first exposure a user has to EO and small satellite technology.

The tool would then fulfill its mission of increasing awareness amongst worldwide decision makers about EO, and in this case small satellites. Increasing awareness and giving easy access to information will surely help increase the demand for small satellites but also improve the technology, as a variety of payloads might be carried on small satellites.

As mentioned earlier, cooperation is often the most reliable and realistic way for small countries and regions to gain access to EO data, and this seems to be favorable to small satellites as well. Surrey Satellite Technology Limited SSTL is a good example of a cooperative venture that led to the development, building and launching of several identical small satellites. Second the tool will help in addressing the limitations of small satellites by emphasizing possible trade-offs.

For small countries or regions, budget, technical capability and human resources are critical factors. As mentioned before, a small satellite will not usually be feasible for them; cooperation with other entities will allow them to spread the costs and the risks and to take advantage of a range of sensors or resolutions even if they develop only one themselves.

Third, some specific programs involving small satellite technology such as KnowHow Transfer programs and Rent-a-Sat options seem to prove to be very well adapted to the needs of small countries and regions, as they are solutions both to lack of capacity and lack of funds, two of the main issues for small countries and regions. The utility of EO for such countries and regions, however, rests on the ability of an organizing body for the EO program to identify and select the most suitable option s for EO in the region.

This selection must fall within the technical and budgetary constraints, which are case specific. Combining cooperation and small satellites is here often a winning solution. To assist in identifying and selecting the best option for the small countries and regions, this project has identified one method and illustrated that method using the SOLST prototype.

In the long term, it is proposed that this method and prototype be developed in conjunction with other initiatives that are attempting to facilitate this type of EO program decision.

Its optical aperture diameter is mm, the effective focal length is mm, and its full field-of-view is 5. To demonstrate its performance and versatility, hyper-spectral imaging using a linear spectral filter was chosen as the application of the prototype.

The spectral resolution will be less than 10 nm and the number of channels will be more than 40 in visible and near-infrared region. In this paper, the progress made so far on the prototype development and the future plan will be presented. Recently, the technology development efforts within SI have been focused on advanced optical and opto-mechanical systems to meet the increasing demand from Y.

Choi et al. Funded by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Energy of Korea in , SI has initiated the development of the prototype model of an advanced high-performance optical system, the TIS system as part of the national space research and development program. The TIS system is designed to be versatile with a wide field-of-view, no obscuration, and no refractive element. Therefore, it can be used for various missions such as super-swath imaging, hyper-spectral imaging, infrared imaging, and aerial imaging.

In addition, its compactness and light weight are ideal for small satellites. The development of two prototype models is planned together with a field test for each model. The progress made so far on the 1st prototype development will be presented: optical design, analysis, and manufacturing; opto-mechanical design, analysis, and manufacturing; and demonstration of hyper-spectral imaging.

The optical design was simplified to use an on-axis spherical secondary mirror. The primary and tertiary mirrors are off-axis segmented aspheric mirrors.

Its optical aperture is mm, its effective focal length is mm, and its full field-of-view is 5. The key features of the TIS system are listed in Table 1. The spectral band range is from to nm and the spectral resolution is less than 10 nm for HS channels.

The number of HS channels is more than The reference planes for the optical surfaces are implemented with invar inserts through the honeycomb panels. The spectrometer of the TIS system is implemented with a linear variable filter LVF on a two-dimensional detector array instead of conventional dispersive elements such as prism and grating. Using aspheric surfaces for an optical system usually gives high performance but, it will increase the manufacturing cost and needs a complex alignment process.

To minimize the manufacturing cost and to make the alignment process simpler, the secondary mirror of the TIS system is an on-axis spherical mirror and the tertiary mirror has a small deviation from a spherical surface.

The design MTF at shorter wavelength is higher than that of nm. The tolerance analysis includes manufacturing, assembly, and alignment errors. The parameters used for the analysis includes the surface quality of mirrors. The analysis shows a wavefront error of 0. The secondary mirror M2 was aligned in two steps: coarse alignment and precision alignment. The coarse alignment of M2 was performed with respect to M1 using CMMs coordinate measurement machines and alignment telescopes.

CMMs were used to correct the M2 de-center and de-space and alignment telescopes to correct the M2 tilt. It is believed that this was caused by the fact that the Zernike calculation perpendicular to the exit pupil was not correct because the image plane is slanted against the optical axis. For the precision alignment of M2, the sensitivity of M2 movement was measured. The optimum position and tilt was estimated based on the measured sensitivity.

The first excitation was measured at Hz from the interface flexure of the main structure. Others were measured at frequencies higher than Hz from translational and local motions of the structure and at frequencies higher than Hz for the motion of mirror assemblies. Figure 15 shows the mages acquired in the channel 22 nm , 30 nm , 47 nm , and 62 nm. The development of the 1st prototype model will be completed by the end of August, with the hyper-spectral imaging demonstration through a field test.

In parallel, the development of 2nd prototype model has been initiated. The 2nd model will have a bigger optical aperture of mm and thus, the complete system will become larger and will give higher performance compared with the 1st model. The 2nd model will give 5 m GSD for one panchromatic and 10 m GSD for four multi-spectral bands at the design orbit of km. The imaging swath width will be larger than 60 km at the design orbit. Recent studies on OMAD and TOMS data found quantitative agreement in the radiances and indicated the detection of the volcanic eruption plume of Nyamuragira volcano due to its sulphur dioxide content [2].

A new analysis of OMAD data using an improved version of the simplified algorithm to find ozone content has been developed and tested. Multiple days were analysed using composites of up to 15 days and ozone contents ranging from DU to DU.

The potential of small satellites for atmospheric missions is discussed, including factors to consider when planning such missions. Mackin Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. Fernandez-Saldivar et al. Each channel uses a single fused silica anti-reflection coated lens with a focal length of The signals are sampled continuously tobit resolution, and the entire instrument draws only mW when in operation [1].

Once the factors are derived these are applied to all cloud conditions where we are aware of the errors in determining the ozone content below clouds due to their properties: height and thickness. The expected errors after the retrieval should be within this error range. Reflectivity is then derived through vicarious calibration between reflectivity data from the TOMS nm channel and the OMAD nm channel, based on radiometric calibration from [5] once the data has been referenced to a common grid 0.

This is shown in Fig. Furthermore, the pixel sizes and time of overpass are different accounting for dissimilar cloud fractions covering the scene. Finally aerosols would introduce another variation however those are ignored here. Reflectivity is not directly taken into account in the retrieval procedure but it allows a selection of low cloud cover from where the empirical factors are derived thus the discrepancies just described do not affect the algorithm directly.

Firstly, we obtain a slant column amount based on a J. Secondly the geometrical observing conditions are taken into account with the solar zenith angle, this is known as geometrical air mass factor and is then subtracted in its logarithmic form from the slant column. Finally the empirical factors convert this un-calibrated vertical column into a real vertical column content. The algorithm works as follows: The un-calibrated slant column amount is derived from the initial simplified algorithm based on the estimated radiance from two channels L and L Even though it seems a rather arbitrary designation, the purpose is to have multiple reduced datasets with similar ozone profile and content for each zone.

This consideration also excludes the latitudes closer to the poles since these areas have the most extreme conditions on solar angle, radiance values and ozone Comparison of Atmospheric Ozone Measurements content; polar regions would need a different analysis. The evaluated regions are illustrated in Fig. However, it is desired to have single linear parameters M and B that would apply to all days, these will be the final empirical parameters described in 4.

The temporal and regional dimensions were analysed considering the variations of these parameters represented in the contour maps shown in Fig. This is partly due to the fitting method resulting in certain coupling between M and B; nonetheless this is useful for deriving the other by having defined one of them once proper relationship between them is identified. In order to help the definition of regional parameters, the corresponding 1-sigma uncertainty estimates of each parameter the fit are included so that the best daily fits are weighted accordingly before obtaining their regional representatives for all those days.

A trend is observed throughout the days indicating the validity of the empirical parameters to represent each zone condition. The M-parameter trend is non-symmetrical with respect to the equator neither to the solar angle indicating the different ozone profiles for each region. The sigma-M also shows a trend that is somehow symmetrical with respect to the equatorial zones except in the southernmost regions where an ozone hole condition normally develops around this time of year.

Comparison of Atmospheric Ozone Measurements The uncertainties of the fit are explained by the different conditions over the regions where the overpass occurred on a specific day. In order to get day-independent representative regional parameters, an average of the M-parameter is obtained with 10 out of 15 days when the uncertainty estimates are lowest; a representative value is then obtained and the B-parameter is derived from there through the coupling between them.

Figure 7 below shows a linear relationship between these two parameters for all zones. The same analysis is carried out for all zones with consistent results. The parameters used are the same as before but the number of data points included varies. Table 1 shows the results of the four different reflectance limits considered and the empirical factors used. Errors are lowest near equatorial regions where the smallest solar angle occurs; as we get closer to the poles the GAMF increases and the errors increase accordingly.

The errors between OMAD and TOMS are explained by changes in real cloud fraction due to difference timing of overpasses and also the determination of ground reflectance for different viewing conditions.

Comparison of Atmospheric Ozone Measurements The days and zones analysed here, even though they represent a relatively narrow window to observe the complex ozone dynamics, nevertheless provide an insight into the processing required to obtain valuable scientific data at low-cost and without the heavy computational burden required by recursive radiative transfer methods.

Because of the temporal variations of ozone, further analyses are required for other months and also polar regions need to be included in order to observe phenomena such as the known ozone hole development. This region is likely to need special treatment due to the extremely low solar elevation angles encountered.

Underwood, C. Newchurch, M. Journal of Geophysical Research, Herman, J. Fernandez-Saldivar, J. Low-cost microsatellite UV instrument suite for monitoring ozone and volcanic sulphur dioxide. MIBS is a spectrometer operating in the thermal infrared wavelength region, designed in the frame of the phase A study for the ESA EarthCARE mission, which uses an uncooled 2D microbolometer array detector instead of the more common MCT detectors, which allows for a significant reduction in size, and power consumption.

Although the detectivity of microbolometers is less then for MCT detectors, they offer specific advantages due to the wider wavelength response, which can be tailored to suit the application. This allows the design of an instrument that can image both the 3. In order to demonstrate feasibility of the concept a breadboard has been designed and built of which the first measurement results are presented here.

Leijtens et al. The radiation is then dispersed by the prism and imaged on the detector via Germanium lenses L1 and L2. For this purpose the mirror of the MIBS breadboard can be rotated by means of a small stepper motor. Given the close proximity of the parts CFM1, SFM1, slit and SFM2 and the desire to assemble the entire system on basis of manufacturing tolerances as much as possible a single mechanical assembly is created out of these parts. This so called slit assembly Fig. The alignment of the optical parts is facilitated through the availability of wedged shims that allow to adjust the tilts of the components in an easy way and a number of dedicated alignment openings are provided in the housing in order to be able to measure the position of the optical components.

Since the entire system up to the prism is reflective with a transmissive slit all of the measurements can be done using standard theodolites. During the assembly and alignment of the system it was proven that the alignment filosophy worked well in the sense that although additional shimming possibilities where provided, they where not needed during the alignment and all parts are mounted using manufacturing tolerances and dedicated alignment shims only.

The camera assembly consists of the mount for the prism and the camera lenses. It is a selfstanding assembly which is made of titanium in stead of the aluminium which is the base material for the rest of the instrument.

Untill now no further measurements have been made on this assembly with exception of the mounting position of the prism. The camera assembly has dedicated heaters and temperature sensors in order to enable accurate temperature stabilization. This stabilization is required in case absolute temperature measurements are to be made with the instrument. The need to stabilize the temperature is related to the absorbtion in the Germanium.

Since the absorbtion in the Germanium is less for lower temperatures, and the change in absolute radiation in less for lower temperatures, there is a preference to operate the optical bench at as low as possible temperatures in order to have an as high as possible absolute radiometric accuracy. Since the setup has only been used to do NETD measurements, the thermal control hardware has been mounted but has not yet been operated.

The rotation of the prism in its holder is slightly above spec 1, 3 mrad instead of 1 mrad which will potentially influence the co-registration for the end of swath.

In case full performance is required in a later stage, this mis-alignment can be solved through a more elaborate alignment procedure, but for the moment it is deemed more important to know what the deviation from nominal is, then to be within the nominal tolerances as there are no real fixed requirements for the breadboard and recalculation with the actual values will allow the correlation of real life measurements with theoretical predictions. As for the other optical tolerances everything else with exception of the nadir pointing repeatability has been proven to be well within spec.

The repeatability of the steppermotor used to rotate the calibration mirror however has been proven to be within 0. The lower than required repeatability should be weighed against the need to design a new calibration unit anyway in case the instrument is to be operated in vacuum. As all blackbodies used are oversized, the reduced repeatability is not seen as a serious constraint for this stage of the project.

The final alignment of the detector behind the camera has not yet been performed because it was felt that a slight defocus would not have dramatic effects on the NETD to be measured. Therefore, in order to find the largest noise contributors and possible large deviations, we decided to do a set of preliminary NETD measurements. The first images produced gave us the confirmation that the optical curvature correction seems to be working, Fig. The gain and offset uses a cold flat plate blackbody at room temperature and another hot plate blackbody at approximately 60 degrees.

Some bright pixels can be discerned as well as some dark pixels showing less then average signal levels but no signal is visible in the raw image.

Nevertheless the slit image at the detector can be clearly seen as well as the image of the two starting and endingpoints of the slit. The bright spots left and right in the image are caused by drilled holes at the beginning and end of the slit used for the spark erosion manufacturing process.

In order to do some NETD measurements, one column was selected for further analysis. Mean difference of “hot” and “cold” frames at column 25 20 15 intensity [—] 10 5 0 —5 —10 —15 —20 —25 0 50 row position [pixel] Fig.

This is in line with expectations and can be explained when looking at the response of the microbolometer detector. The leading edge is determined by the long wavelength response which gradually improves with decreasing Germanium absorbtion. Longer wavelengths are to the left Shorter wavelengths will be transmitted by the high pass filter deposited on the detector window, and a combination of filter damping and decreased bolometer response cause the response to decrease fast with wavelength.

This prompted some investigations aimed at providing additional insight into the cause of the lower then expected NETD. During these investigations a number of contributors have been identified. Although the investigations have not been exhaustive a good feeling has been developed regarding the optical throughput of the system. First of all the reflection of a spare mirror that was coated at the same time as the mirrors used in the breadboard was measured.

The results of these measurements showed the reflection to be less than presumed during the NETD calculations. In first instance this may not seem to dramatic, but considering that the beam passes 7 surfaces, the total system transmission is 0.

Furthermore during the initial measurements it was found that the intensity variations of the entire image are quite significant. When tracking the average intensity of the image over time, it can be seen Fig. As compared to the signal found in Fig. Mean intensity evolution mean intensity of frame [—] 0 20 40 60 80 frame [—] Fig.

The large fluctuations however were not directly expected but may be related to some limit cycling in the thermal control hardware. For normal imaging applications this will not be a real problem, but this becomes a significant effect for the spectrometer application where the input signal is reduced Serious Microsats Need Serious Instruments, MIBS and the First Results due to the fact that the available signal is dispersed over a number of pixels.

It is not expected that this effect can be easily remedied for the breadboard, as it would involve interference with the thermal control hardware of the camera used. Deviation of first frame from average of consecutive frames row position [pixel] 50 50 column position [pixel] Fig. This leads to a considerably improved image quality Fig. The performed exercises show that the measured NETD is above the expected NETD, but a number of contributors have been identified: r r r r Poor quality of the blackbody used Lower then expected reflection of mirrors High average image intensity variations EMC disturbance J.

Deviation of first frame from average highest modes removed row position [pixel] 50 50 column position [pixel] Fig. Furthermore a number of potentially relevant issues have not been specifically investigated yet.

This will lead to an instrument that can be manufactured and aligned at a competitive price. During this year TNO will continue with the characterization of the MIBS breadboard and further results can be expected in the course of this year.

We also study the feasibility of controlling a constellation of such small satellites by means of air drag by extracting one or more flaps. It is found that it is indeed possible, but for best performance it is limited to altitudes around to km, depending on the time of launch with regard to the solar sunspot cycle.

Description of the geomagnetic M. Lyngby, Denmark e-mail: [email protected] J. Lyngby, Denmark P. Lyngby, Denmark S. Lyngby, Denmark N.

Lyngby, Denmark L. Lyngby, Denmark R. Thomsen et al. Unfortunately it is still expensive to integrate and launch large satellites.



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